On 20 February 2016, tropical cyclone Winston struck Fiji. It was described as the most destructive cyclone ever to strike in the Pacific. With winds of up to 280km/h, the coral reefs in the Namena Marine Reserve and Vatu-i-Ra Conservation Park off Fiji were completely destroyed.
To understand how cyclones affect coral reefs and how fast the reefs recover, the team at Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS) Fiji conducted three surveys at different times—one month after, six months after and in December 2020 (more than four years after the cyclone).
There are currently about half a trillion corals in the Pacific. Of the species studied, two-thirds of the coral species have population sizes exceeding 100 million colonies, while 20 percent of the species have population sizes that are more than a billion colonies.
“We need to know the abundance of a species to assess its risk of extinction,” said lead author Andy Dietzel from the ARC Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies at James Cook University (Coral CoE at JCU).
Researchers at Michigan State University and the University of Hawaii at Manoa have been uncovering clues as to why some corals bleach while others are resistant, information that could help reefs better weather warming waters in the future.
The team analysed the biochemistry of corals using mass spectrometers to understand what set resistant corals apart from susceptible ones. The scientists found that two different communities of algae lived within the corals. Inside the algae cells were compounds known as lipids.
Our coral reefs are now under threat not only from the global warming, pollution and exploitation but also by the conduct of divers in these sensitive areas. The reefs are now calling for our protection both when we dive and as contributors to the ongoing struggle to preserve these unique ecosystems for future generations.
The coral sanctuary is a wildlife hotspot where species are thriving despite warming events that have killed their neighbours
Coral reefs have been seeking new pastures, as rising temperatures heat up their natural habitats.
Over the last four decades, coral reefs have been progressively shifting their homes from equatorial waters to more temperate regions.
The reason? Climate change.
“Climate change seems to be redistributing coral reefs, the same way it is shifting many other marine species,” said Nichole Price, a senior research scientist at Bigelow Laboratory for Ocean Sciences and lead author of the paper on the topic.
Reef-building staghorn coral (Acropora cervicornis) was abundant and widespread throughout the Caribbean and Florida until the late 1970s. The fast-growing coral formed dense thickets in forereef, backreef, and patch-reef environments to depths over 20 m.
Researchers in Australia have uncovered a massive “detached” coral reef off the Queensland coast, the first of its kind to be discovered in more than 120 years. The discovery was made about 80 kilometres east of Cape Grenville, approximately 150 kilometres south of the tip of the Cape York Peninsula.
Healthy coral reefs provide food and a home to about 25% of all the world’s marine creatures, sustain an estimated 6 million fishermen, provide coastal protection by reducing the impact of waves and support local tourist economies. But corals worldwide are under threat. Mass bleaching is rapidly threatening the world’s coral reefs, with an estimated 50% already lost and 90% projected by mid-century.
Outbreaks of crown-of-thorns starfish (CoTS) are bad news for coral reefs, so it is essential that they are detected and dealt with as soon as possible.
But detecting an outbreak in its early stages is not easy. What’s more, they sometimes hide under coral plates, while the younger ones can be as small as just a few millimetres.
To counter this, the researchers at the Australian Institute of Marine Science (AIMS) developed a new test to detect the presence of the starfish on coral reefs.