Understanding exposure, brightness, contrast

Exposure: This is how light influenced the sensor / film. The exposure amount controls what you can see in each shot. For example, when I take a photo of a building at night, I have to choose between high exposures to see the building, but the moon is a white disaster or low exposure to see the moon. The building will only be one blur. The moon is the brightest in the picture, so it doesn't take long to print it on your sensor / film. If you expose too much, the printing continues beyond what is necessary and then everything turns white. The building is not as bright as the moon, so it needs a lot of exposure before the camera can see details. There are 4 factors that control exposure.

How long does the lens of the digital camera stay open and bring the picture / light. A longer exposure creates this "blurred" movement effect.

Turn on. Bright, sunny days require almost no exposure. Night shots require a lot of exposure.

Shutter speed. The faster your shutter is, the less light hits the film / sensor (but also the probability of a blurry photo).

Opening. Your camera has a hole through which you take the photo. The bigger the hole, the more light it lets in and the more exposed the photo is.

ISO indicates how sensitive the film / sensor is. A very high ISO value means that the image can be exposed very easily in poor lighting conditions. The problem is that you are more likely to expose things that are not really there and get a grainy photo. I like to compare it to the sound. When you hear a piece of music and upload it, you hear background noise. If you go too far, this sound will outweigh and you will start to experience cuts and distortion that will ruin the song. So increasing the ISO is like increasing the volume. If you don't, it sounds better, but sometimes you have to crank everything up and hope your speaker / camera can handle it.

Brightness: When taking pictures, the image simply becomes whiter due to the brightness.

Contrast: Contrast is the difference between black and white. If you decrease the contrast, the colors are mixed. When you increase the contrast, there are big differences between the colors. However, you may find that the light parts are too light and the dark parts are too dark (that's why some photo apps have medium contrast to confuse things).

White balance: your brain can very well pretend the world is normal if it is not. In each room, you look at white paper and think it is white, although it is actually the color of the lighting in that room. Your brain knows that the paper must be white so that you don't mind. The lighting can vary widely in any situation, from red and yellow to blue, depending on the quality of the artificial lighting or the time of day. When you take a photo, the camera takes on every color that it really is, and when you look at your photo, your brain won't bother to correct it, so an image of this sheet of paper looks every color. With white balance, you can tell your camera or photo software that the paper is white. In this sense, the photo can be automatically adjusted to compensate for additional lighting colors. (Provided everything was illuminated with the same light). This can also be used to create an illusion of a different kind of light. If you increase the white balance for an image, the photo appears to be taken at sunset. Throw it the other way and it looks like it was taken at night.