Sponges are dominant components of coral reef ecosystems, often exceeding reef-building corals in abundance. Large sponges, often more than 1 m in diameter, may be hundreds to thousands of years old. When damaged or dislodged, large sponges usually die because they are unable to reattach to the reef substratum.
20 specimens of the Caribbean giant barrel sponge were removed and reattached at Conch Reef off of Key Largo, Florida in 2004 and 2005 at depths of 15m and 30m.
Several theories have been put forward by experts as to why white sharks sometimes bite people. In this article we examine three of the most prominent theories and look at why most of these incidents are non-fatal.
Firstly it is important to realise that shark attacks are far more rare than many people might expect.